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Day 10 – Beginning with Food Before Praying

Bite size No. 10

Beginning with Food Before Praying

Compiled and Translated
Abbas Abu Yahya

English Audio:

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No. 10 – Beginning with Food Before PrayingFTS no. 10 card

From Anas -Radhi Allaah anhu- that the Messenger of Allaah  -SallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam said:

((إذا قُدِّم العشاءُ فابدَؤوا به قبلَ أن تُصَلُّوا المغْربَ))

‘If the evening meal is served then begin with the food before you pray Maghrib.’

[Collected by Bukhari & Muslim]

From Umar -RadhiAllaahu anhu- who said that the Messenger of Allaah  -SallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam said:

إذا وُضِعَ عَشاءُ أحدِكم وأُقيمتِ الصَّلاةُ، فابْدؤوا بالعَشاءِ، ولا يَعْجَلْ حتى يَفرغَ

‘If your dinner has been served and the prayer is about to begin, then begin the dinner and do not rush until you have finished eating.’

[Collected by Bukhari & Muslim]

Imam at-Tirmidhi said:

‘This is what some of the people of knowledge acted upon, from the Companions of the Prophet -SallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam, from them Abu Bakr, Umar and Ibn Umar. Ahmad and Ishaaq say the same, they say: begin with dinner even if you miss the prayer in congregation.’

[Sunnan Tirmidhi no. 353]

From Anas -RadhiAllaahu anhu- that the Prophet -SallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam- said:

إذا قُرِّب العَشاءُ وحضرتِ الصَّلاةُ، فابدؤوا به قبل أن تُصلُّوا صلاةَ المغربِ، ولا تَعْجَلوا عن عَشائِكم

‘If dinner is about to be served and the prayer time has arrived begin with dinner before you pray the Maghrib prayer, and do not hasten your dinner.’

[Collected by Bukhari & Muslim]

From Ibn Umar who said that the Prophet -SallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam- said:

‘When one of you is eating food then he should not hasten until he has taken his need of it, even if the prayer has begun.’

[Collected by Bukhari]

Abu Darda -RadhiAllaahu anhu- said:

 ‘From the good understanding of a person is that he turns to what he needs, so that when he enters into his prayer, his heart is free.’

[Collected by Bukhari]

Nawawi -Rahimuhullaah- said:

‘This hadeeth is a proof for the dislike of praying when food is served, that a person wishes to eat, due to what is in the hadeeth, of the heart being preoccupied with food, and the disappearance of complete Khushoo, as is the case with the restraint of relieving oneself from the two filths, which are urine and excrement which is also disliked.

In addition to this, are those matters which fall into this category of matters, which preoccupy the heart and therefore cause the departure of complete Khushoo.’

[Sharh Saheeh Muslim 5/46]

From Ayesha -RadhiAllaahu anha- who said indeed I heard the Messenger of Allaah  -SallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam- saying:

لا صلاةَ بحضرةِ طعامٍ، ولا وهو يُدافِعُه الأخبثانِ

‘There is no prayer when food is served, nor whilst one is restraining oneself from relieving oneself.’

[Collected by Muslim]

Shaykh Muhammad bin Salih al-Uthaymeen -Rahimuhullaah- said in his explanation of ‘Zaad al-Mustaqna’ when discussing the issues of not having to attend the Jumma and the obligatory prayer:

‘(Restraining from relieving oneself of the two filthy matters): in this case a person has an excuse for leaving off praying Juma and attending the congregational prayer.

(restraining from relieving oneself): is when a person fights off having to relieve himself of the two filthy matters.

(Filthy matters): they are urine and excrement, and what is also connected to these from passing wind. This is because some people have gases by which their stomachs bloat and are extremely burdensome for them and perhaps it may be more difficult upon him to restrain from wanting to urinate and defecate, and the proof for this is the following:

1 – The saying of the Prophet -SallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam-: ‘There is no prayer when food is served, nor when one is restraining oneself from relieving oneself.’

[Collected by Muslim]

The negation here shows it is prohibited, meaning do not pray when food is being served nor in a state when one restrains relieving oneself from the two filthy matters.

2 – Restraining oneself from relieving oneself preoccupies the heart taking away from the prayer, and this is a deficiency in the soul of worship. However, leaving off praying in congregation is an external deficiency, outside of that actual worship. Since praying in congregation is an obligation for the prayer but being compliant with the essence of a worship, [here being the actual prayer] is foremost than being compliant with a matter [here being the prayer in congregation] which is connected to outside of that worship.

This is why we say, being compliant upon performing the prayer with tranquillity and the presence of the heart is foremost than attending the congregational prayer or the Juma prayer.

3 – Holding oneself back from these two filthy matters and restraining them clearly harms the body, this is because Allaah has made the exiting of these two filthy matters as a relief and ease for a person. If he restrains them, he ends up opposing the nature upon which Allaah created people. This is a medical principle: that every time a person opposes nature then it rebounds with harm to the body. From this we can see the harm of pills which women use to restrain menstruation; indeed, its harm is very clear and doctors have testified to this.

Food being Served

(When food is served and there is a need for the food): this is a situation where there is an excuse for leaving the Juma and congregational prayer for the one for whom food is being served, this means, food is served to him and he has a need of it, however this is with the condition that he has the possibility to eat it.

For example: Food is served to a hungry person and he hears the Iqamah for the prayer, so he is between two matters, if he goes to the Masjid then his heart will be preoccupied with food due to him being hungry, and if he ate, his hunger would be satisfied and blocked, so we say, go ahead and eat and there is no problem, indeed the Prophet -SallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam- said:

‘If the evening meal is served then begin with it before you pray Maghrib.’

[Collected by Bukhari & Muslim]

So, the Prophet ordered us to begin with food. Ibn Umar used to hear the recitation of the Imam whilst he would eat his dinner, knowing that Ibn Umar was the most intense and strongest of the people in adhering to the Sunnah.

Therefore, when food is served then eat even if the prayer has begun.

Is it allowed for you to eat your fill or just enough to fulfil your need of food?

We say, it is allowed for you to satisfy yourself, because the concession is general ‘If the evening meal is served then begin with it before you pray Maghrib.’

It is conditional that the person has the capability to eat, if he does not, for example he is fasting and the food for him for breaking fast is presented and the Adhan for the Asr prayer is called and he has a need to eat, he cannot delay the Asr prayer until he breaks his fast and eats, but this food is not allowed for him to eat according to the Sharia [due to him fasting] even though he has a strong desire to eat food.

There is also the necessity of another condition, which is, that he does not take this as a regular practice, in that the food is served only when the time for the Iqamah of the prayer is close. This is because if he takes that as his regular practice then he has purposefully left off the prayer, but if this occurs without taking it as a regular practice then he should begin with the food which is served, whether it is dinner or lunch.’

[Sharh Zaad al-Mustaqna’ fee Ikhtisaar al-Muqna’ 4/239-245]

Ibn Abideen said:

‘Food which is just about to be served [i.e. preparing to be served] is the same as food which is actually being served. This is what is understood to be correct due to the reason that the heart would not be preoccupied, and Sha’fiaee declared that to be the case.’

[Hasheeyat Ibn Abideen 1/556]

فابْدؤوا بالعَشاءِ

وعن أنَس – رضي الله عنه -: أن رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – قال: ((إذا قُدِّم العشاءُ فابدَؤوا به قبلَ أن تُصَلُّوا المغْربَ)) متفقٌ عليه

عنِ ابنِ عُمرَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عنهما، قال: قال رسولُ اللهِ صلَّى اللهُ عليه وسلَّم: ((إذا وُضِعَ عَشاءُ أحدِكم وأُقيمتِ الصَّلاةُ، فابْدؤوا بالعَشاءِ، ولا يَعْجَلْ حتى يَفرغَ))  (9) . رواه البخاري (673)، ومسلم (559).

2- عن أنسٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عنه، أنَّ النبيَّ صلَّى اللهُ عليه وسلَّم قال: ((إذا قُرِّب العَشاءُ وحضرتِ الصَّلاةُ، فابدؤوا به قبل أن تُصلُّوا صلاةَ المغربِ، ولا تَعْجَلوا عن عَشائِكم))  (10) . رواه البخاري (673)، ومسلم (559).

3- عن عائشةَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عنها، قالت: إنِّي سمعتُ رسولَ اللهِ صلَّى اللهُ عليه وسلَّم يقول: (( لا صلاةَ بحضرةِ طعامٍ، ولا وهو يُدافِعُه الأخبثانِ))  (11) . رواه (673)، ومسلم (559).

عَنْ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ: قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «إِذَا كَانَ أَحَدُكُمْ عَلَى الطَّعَامِ، فَلاَ يَعْجَلْ حَتَّى يَقْضِيَ حَاجَتَهُ مِنْهُ، وَإِنْ أُقِيمَتِ الصَّلاَةُ» البخاري

قال أبو الدَّرداء: “مِن فقه المرء إقباله على حاجته؛ حتى يُقبِلَ على صلاته وقلبُه فارغٌ” البخاري

قال الإمام النووي – رحمه الله -: هذا الحديث دليلٌ على كراهة الصلاة بحضرة الطعام الذي يريد أكله؛ لِمَا فيه من اشتغال القلب به، وذهاب كمال الخشوع، وكراهتها مع مدافعة الأخبثين، وهما البول والغائط، ويلحق بهذا ما كان في معناه مما يَشغَل القلب، ويُذهِب كمال الخشوع؛ (مسلم بشرح النووي – جـ 5 – صـ 46).

وقال ابنُ عابدين: (وقرُب حضورُه كحضورِه فيما يظهرُ لوجود العِلَّة، وبه صرَّح الشافعي). ((حاشية ابن عابدين)) (1/556).

قال الترمذي (353): “وعليه العمل عند بعض أهل العلم من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم منهم: أبو بكر، وعمر، وابن عمر.
وبه يقول أحمد، وإسحاق يقولان: يبدأ بالعشاء وإن فاتته الصلاة في الجماعة”. انتهى

الكتاب: الجامع الكبير – سنن الترمذي 353

قال الشيخ محمد بن صالح العثيمين رحمه الله تعالى- في شرحه لزاد المستقنع-ص (4/245-..239)

– مدافع أحد الأخبثين :
قوله: « ومدافع أحد الأخبثين » هذا نوع ثان يعذر فيه بترك الجمعة والجماعة.
و«مدافع» تدل على أن الإنسان يتكلف دفع أحد الأخبثين.
والأخبثان: هما البول والغائط، ويلحق بهما الريح؛ لأن بعض الناس يكون عنده غازات تنفخ  بطنه وتشق عليه جدا، وقد يكون أشق عليه من احتباس البول والغائط، والدليل على ذلك ما يلي:
1 _ قول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم : «لا صلاة بحضرة طعام، ولا وهو يدافعه الأخبثان » [رواه مسلم : رقم 560]
والنفي هنا بمعنى النهي، أي: لا تصلوا بحضرة طعام ولا حال مدافعة الأخبثين.
2 _ أن المدافعة تقتضي انشغال القلب عن الصلاة، وهذا خلل في نفس العبادة، وترك الجماعة  خلل في أمر خارج عن العبادة، لأن الجماعة واجبة للصلاة، والمحافظة على ما يتعلق بذات      العبادة أولى من المحافظة على ما يتعلق بأمر خارج عنها، فلهذا نقول: المحافظة على أداء الصلاة بطمأنينة وحضور قلب أولى من حضور الجماعة أو الجمعة.
3 _ أن احتباس هذين الأخبثين مع المدافعة يضر البدن ضررا بينا؛ لأن الله جعل خروج هذين  الأخبثين راحة للإنسان، فإذا حبسهما صار في هذا مخالفة للطبيعة التي خلق الإنسان عليها،  وهذه قاعدة طبية: أن كل ما خالف الطبيعة فإنه ينعكس بالضرر على البدن، ومن ثم يتبين  أضرار الحبوب التي تستعملها النساء من أجل حبس الحيض، فإن ضررها ظاهر جدا، وقد شهد  به  الأطباء.
– بحضرة طعام :
قوله: « ومن بحضرة طعام محتاج إليه » هذا نوع ثالث فيعذر بترك جمعة وجماعة من كان بحضرة طعام، أي: حضر عنده طعام وهو محتاج إليه، لكن بشرط أن يكون متمكنا من تناوله.
مثاله: رجل جائع حضر عنده الطعام وهو يسمع الإقامة، فهو بين أمرين : إن ذهب إلى  المسجد انشغل قلبه بالطعام لجوعه، وإن أكل اطمأن وانسد جوعه، فنقول: كل ولا حرج، وقد قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم : « إذا قدم العشاء فابدؤا به قبل أن تصلوا صلاة المغرب » [ أخرجه البخاري:672 ، ومسلم:557 باختلاف يسير ]فأمرنا بأن نبدأ به. وكان ابن عمر يسمع قراءة الإمام وهو يتعشى . مع أن ابن عمر من أشد الناس

 تمسكا بالسنة.
إذا؛ إذا حضر العشاء فتعش ولو أقيمت الصلاة. وهل الأكل بمقدار ما تنكسر نهمتك، أو لك أن تشبع؟
نقول : لك أن تشبع؛ لأن الرخصة عامة «إذا قدم العشاء فابدؤوا به قبل أن تصلوا صلاة  المغرب ».
ويشترط أن يتمكن من تناوله، فإن لم يتمكن بأن كان صائما وحضر طعام الإفطار، وأذن لصلاة العصر وهو بحاجة إلى الأكل فليس له أن يؤخر صلاة العصر حتى يفطر ويأكل؛ لأن هذا  الطعام ممنوع منه شرعا، حتى لو اشتهى الطعام شهوة قوية.
ولا بد أيضا من قيد آخر: وهو أن لا يجعل ذلك عادة بحيث لا يقدم العشاء إلا إذا قاربت  إقامة الصلاة، لأنه إذا اتخذ هذا عادة فقد تعمد أن يدع الصلاة، لكن إذا حصل هذا بغير  اتخاذه عادة فإنه يبدأ بالطعام الذي حضر، سواء كان عشاء أم غداء.

فضيلة الشيخ محمد بن صالح العثيمين رحمه الله تعالى
شرح ” زاد المستقنع في اختصار المقنع ”
ص (239-.. (4/245