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Bida’ Hassanah – Part 2

Chapter One: Definition of Bida’

Linguistic meaning:

‘It is something which is invented without a preceding example.’[1]

Sharee’a Definition:

Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah defined it as:

Al-Bida’ in the Deen: is that which Allaah and His Messenger have not legislated, and it is that which has not been commanded, neither as an obligatory command nor as one, which is preferred (or recommended.)’[2]

Chapter Two: Evidences that prove there is no good in Bida’

Allaah Ta’ala says:

اليوم أكملت لكم دينكم وأتممت عليكم نعمتي و رضيت لكم بالإسلام دينا

<<This day I have perfected your religion for you completed My favour upon you and have chosen for you Islaam as your religion.>>[3]

Maalik bin Anas[4] said, ‘Whoever innovates in Islaam a Bida’, and regards it as good. Then he has alleged that Muhammad صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلَّمَ was disloyal in delivering the message, because Allaah said: This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you and have chosen for you Islaam as your religion. That, which was not considered Deen[5] at that time, is not considered Deen today.[6]

Ash-Shawkaanee[7] said: ‘If Allaah has indeed perfected His Deen before taking His Prophet away, then what is this opinion, which its people (i.e. the people of innovations) introduce after Allaah has completed His Deen!’

If Bida’ was considered a part of the Deen as it is according to the Aqeedah of those who innovate.[8] Then this shows us clearly, that in their opinion, the Deen is not complete thus refuting the Noble Qur’aan. If however it is not from the Deen then what is the benefit of concerning themselves with something that is not from the Deen?!

This is a strong proof, and great evidence, it is not possible for the person who follows his own opinion to reject this. So, make this noble verse the first that you strike in the face of the people of opinions, to defy them and to refute their arguments.[9]

(2) It is narrated from Jaabir bin Abdullaah[10] – May Allaah be pleased with him – that the Messenger of Allaah صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلَّمَ used to say in his Khutbah.

‘To proceed, Indeed the best of speech is the Book of Allaah, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad  صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلَّمَ, and the worst of affairs are the introduced matters, every newly invented matter is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance.’[11]

(3) ‘Irbaad bin Sariyaah[12] – May Allaah be pleased with him – narrated that the Messenger of Allaah صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلَّمَ admonished us, and his admonishment caused our hearts to tremble, and our eyes to overflow with tears, so we said: O Messenger of Allaah صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلَّمَ it is as though this is a farewell sermon, so advise us, he said:

‘I advise you to fear Allaah, hear and obey, even if the one in command is a slave, and he who lives amongst you will witness many differences, so hold fast to my Sunnah[13], and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Caliphs, bite onto it with your molar teeth, and beware of newly invented matters for verily all Bida’ is misguidance.’[14]

Ibn Rajab[15]said:

As for the saying of the Messenger of Allaah  صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلَّمَ‘All Bida’ is misguidance’ then this is from his eloquent speech, for which there is no exception, and this is one of the great principles from the fundamentals of the Deen.[16]

Ibn Hajar[17] said:

His saying ‘All Bida’ is misguidance’ regarding its definition, then it is a complete Islaamic principle according to the Sharee’a,[18] and according to its understanding.  Thus in relation to its text, it is as though one is saying, that the ruling of such and such is an act of Bida’, and all Bida’ is misguidance, so it cannot be from the Sharee’a, because all the Sharee’a is guidance.  If it is established that the mentioned ruling is Bida’ then what has proceeded is correct and the goal has been achieved.[19]

The esteemed scholar of our time Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih ‘Uthaimeen[20] said:

‘Verily his saying ‘All Bida’ encompasses all generality and completeness, for the word ‘ كل‘ (all) kullu, has been used with the strongest meaning which emphasises generality and completeness.’

He also added, ‘so regarding everything that is claimed to be a Bida’ hassanah’,  the reply to this is that, there is no scope for the people of Bida’ for them to turn their Bida’ into  Bida’ hassanah’, because we grasp in our hands this sharpened sword of the Messenger of Allaah ( with the words) ‘All Bida’ is misguidance’.[21]

(4)Ayesha[22] – May Allaah be pleased with her –  narrated that the Messenger of Allaah صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلَّمَ said:

‘Whoever innovates in this affair (religion) of ours that which is not from it, then it is rejected.’[23]

Ash-Shawkaanee said: This hadeeth is from the principles of the Deen, for it is an embodiment of rulings that have no limit.  Falsehood becomes apparent when some jurists divide Bida’ into two categories, and subject this rejection (as mentioned in the hadeeth) to some Bida’ and not to others, without logical reasoning or evidence.[24]

(5) Abd’Allaah bin Ukeem[25] – May Allaah be pleased with him – narrated that Umar[26] – May Allaah be pleased with him – said: Indeed the most truthful of what has been said, is the saying of the Messenger of Allaah, “……and indeed the best of guidance is the guidance of the Messenger of Allaah, and indeed the most evil of the affairs is innovation, is it not so that all Bida’ is misguidance and all misguidance is in the fire.”[27]

Abd’Allaah bin Masood[28] – May Allaah be pleased with him – said: ‘Follow and do not innovate, for indeed the Deen is sufficient for you and all Bida’ is misguidance.’[29]

AbdAllaah bin Umar[30] – May Allaah be pleased with him – said: All Bida’ is misguidance, even if the people regard it as good.[31]

Alee – May Allaah be pleased with him –  said: If the religion was based upon intellect then the bottom of the foot would be wiped rather than the top, for verily I saw the Messenger of Allaah صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلَّمَ wipe the top of his khuffs.[32]

Umar bin Khattab – May Allaah be pleased with him said as he kissed the black stone : Verily I know that you are a stone, you do not cause benefit nor harm, and if I had not see the Messenger of Allaah صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلَّمَ kissing you, I would not have kissed you.[33]

These Salafee[34] narrations from the noble Companions make clear the correct methodology in understanding and implementing the Sharee’a. And show that there is no scope for the intellect to decipher that which is good in it, nor to adorn it with their own opinions. The place of all this correct methodology in comprehending the Sharee’a is found in the texts of the Sharee’a.

Therefore that which is considered good is only that which is considered good by the Sharee’a itself, and that which is considered bad is only that which is bad in accordance to the Sharee’a, thus the intellect in itself cannot regard anything as good or bad, however  the people of misguidance oppose this statement of ours.

Abu Shama Maq’dasee said in his book, ‘al-Ba’ith:

‘It is obligatory upon the scholar when faced with situations, and when asked about the Sharee’a: that he returns to the evidence which is found in the Book of Allaah which was sent down, and that which is authentic from His Prophet, the truthful Messenger صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلَّمَ, and that which his Companions were upon, and those who came after them from the early generations. So, that which conforms to what they were upon, is what the scholar has to allow and command us with, and whatever opposes what the early generations were upon then he has to prohibit it and prevent us from it. In doing so he has believed and followed.[35]

[1] See ‘Lisan al-Arab’ by Ibn Manthoor 9/351.

[2] Majmoo’ al-Fataawa 4/107.

[3]Soorah Mai’da : 3

[4] Maalik ibn Anas ibn Aamir was born in Madeenah in 93 A.H. & died in 179 A.H. His kunya was Abu Abd’Allaah, he had the famous title of ‘Imaam Dar ul Hijrah’ which means Madeenah.  His grandfather Aamir was from amongst the major Companions.  He was a Muhadith & a Faqih.

He taught hadeeth in Madeenah for 40 years.  He did not want his famous book al-Muwatta to become the only book that was relied upon.

[5] The religion of Islaam all its beliefs & practices.

[6] ‘Al-‘Aateesaam’ by ash-Shaatabee (1/64).

[7] He is Muhammad bin ‘Alee ash-Shawkanee who died in the year 1250a.h. he lived in Sana’, Yemen.  He studied under his father who was a great scholar of Yemen, and he authored many books in the different sciences of Islaam, in Tafseer he wrote ‘Fathul-Qadeer’, & in the field of hadeeth he wrote ‘Nail awtaar’.

[8]That which binds or is firmly rooted in the heart.  The principles & details of belief.

[9] ‘al-Qawl al-mufeed fee adillat al-ijtihaad wa taqleed’ p.38, from ‘ar-rasail as-salafeeyah’.

[10] He was the great companion of the Messenger of Allaah, Jabir ibn Abdullaah ibn Haraam, he died in the year 74 a.h. at the age of 94, he was the last companion who witnessed the oath of allegiance at ‘Aqabah to die.  He took part in 19 battles with the Messenger of Allaah, he mentions that he did not attend the battle of Badr nor that of Uhud because his father prevented him, when his father was killed he never stayed away from a battle.  He also lost his eyesight in his later life, and he was one of the main narrators of Hadeeth on the Messenger of Allaah.

[11]Narrated by Muslim 867.

[12] He is the great companion of the Messenger of Allaah ‘Irbaad bin Saariya as-Salama who died after 70 a. h. his kunya was Abu Najeeh.  He was from amongst the ahl-ul-Suffah, Utbah bin Ubaid would say that ‘Irbaad is better than me and vice versa.

[13]In the broadest sense it means the entire Deen, which the Prophet came with & taught, i.e. beliefs, rulings, manners, actions which were conveyed by the Companions, and in the other sense it means the sayings and the actions of the Prophet and those things which he allowed, & his behaviour.

The Prophet said: ‘He who turns away from my Sunnah is not from me.’ Bukharee & Muslim.

[14]Narrated by Ahmad (4/126), Abu Dawood 4607, at-Tirmidhee 2676 and he said it was Hasan Saheeh, & Ibn Majah 44 & ad-Darimee (1/44-45), al-Bazaar said : hadeeth thabit saheeh.  Ibn Abdul Bar said : just as al-Bazaar has mentioned. Jaama’ bayaan al-Ilm.

[15] He is Zain ud-Deen AbduRahmaan bin Ahmad, ibn Rajab.  One of the great scholars of Hadeeth & Fiqh.  He died in 795 a.h.   Ibn Hajr said : ‘He perfected the knowledge of Hadeeth, and became the most knowledgeable about the inaccuracies of Hadeeth and tracing their routes from the people of his time.’

Ibn al-Emaad al-Hambalee said:’that his gatherings for reminding the hearts would cause shudders & he was beneficial, a blessing for the general people. The different groups would gather under him, their hearts would fill with love & would incline towards him. He has many beneficial works and has authored many books.’

[16]Jama’ al-Uloom awl-Hikam.

[17] He is Shihaab ud-Deen, Abu Fadl, Ahmad bin ‘Alee al-Asqaalanee, he died in 852 a.h.  He was a great scholar of Hadeeth, he was given the title of ameer ul-mumineen of Hadeeth in his time.  Ibn Fahad said : ‘Eyes have not seen one like him and he hasn’t seen anyone like him self.’  He used to follow and stick to the Sunnah very firmly in all his affairs. He used to call to the Sunnah with his speech & his writings, he used to warn against opposing it and was severe in his disapproval of Bida’.  He wrote a very famous explanation of the Saheeh of al-Bukharee, called Fath-ul-Bari.

[18]Divine code of law.

[19]Fath-ul-Baree 13/254.

[20]He is Abu Abdillaah Muhammad ibn Saalih ibn Uthaimeen al-Wahabee at-Tameemee.  Born in Unayzah, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 27th of Ramadan in the year 1347 hijree, he memorized the Qur’aan at a young age and he studied under the shaykh Abdur Rahmaan as-Sa’adee, he studied fiqh, grammar, hadeeth and tafseer.  He also studied under the shaykh Abdul Azeez ibn Baaz.  He was also a member of the Council of Eminent Scholars of Saudi Arabia; he wrote over 40 works, he regularly delivered lectures in the masjid al-Haraam in Makka in the Rammadan and Hajj seasons. He passed away in the year 1421A.H. and is buried in Makkah.

[21]Al-Ibda’ fee kamaal ash-Shar’ wa Khatir al-Ibteeda’ by Ibn Uthaimeen p.13

[22] She is Ayesha daughter of Abu Bakr as-Sideeq – may Allaah be pleased with them – wife of the Messenger of Allaah, after Khadija  -may Allaah be pleased with her- had died, the Angel Jibra’eel had shown her to the Messenger of Allaah in his dream before he married her, she was 18 years of age when the Messenger of Allaah died.  She died 59 a.h.  On the 17th Ramadan, Abu Huraira -may Allaah be pleased with him- buried her.

She was the Mother of the Believers, as-Siddeqqah.  Umar – may Allaah be pleased with him – asked the Messenger of Allaah, ‘who is the most beloved of people to you?’ he replied: ‘Ayesha’, then he asked, ‘from amongst the men?’ he replied: ‘Her father.’

Ash-Shaabee said : when Masrooq would narrate on Ayesha to us, he would say : ‘I was told by the truthful one, daughter of the truthful one, the beloved of the most beloved to Allaah, who’s innocence was established from above the seven heavens.’

Az-Zuhri said : ‘If the knowledge of Ayesha was gathered against the knowledge of all the other wives of the Messenger of Allaah and all the women, then Ayesha’s knowledge would remain unsurpassed.’

[23]Saheeh al-Bukharee & Muslim.

[24]Nail –awtaar 2/69.

[25]He was a Companion of the Messenger of Allaah but he did not narrate from him.  His name is Abdullaah bin Ukeem Abu Ma’baad al-Koofi, he died during the rule of Hajjaj.  He was around from before the time of Islaam.

[26] He was the second of the great Khulafa of the Messenger of Allaah, Abu Hafs, Umar bin al-Khattab bin Nufail.  He died in the year 23 a.h. after leading the Fajr prayer, he was stabbed whilst leading the prayer.  His khilaafah lasted for 10yrs after the khilaafah of Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq, the Messenger of Allaah was always seen with Abu Bakr & Umar.

The Messenger of Allaah said: ‘Verily Allaah has placed the truth upon the tongue & heart of Umar.’ Narrated by  Ibn Umar & Abu Dharr, collected by Ahmad, Tirmidhee, Abu Dawood & authenticated by al-Albaanee in saheeh al-Jaami’.

Talha bin Ubaidullaah said: That Umar was not the first to embrace Islaam nor to make Hijraa but was the foremost in zuhud & desiring for the hereafter out of us.

The Messenger of Allaah mentions as is narrated in Saheeh al-Bukharee by Jabir bin Abdullaah : ‘I saw myself entering Paradise, and behold! I saw ar-Rumaisa the wife of Abu Talha.  And I heard footsteps, so I asked who’s that? It was said: It is Bilal.  Then I saw a palace with a lady sitting in its courtyard. So I said who’s is this? They said it is Umar’s.  I wanted to enter it and see it then I remembered your Ghira.’ Then Umar said: Let my parents be sacrificed for you O Allaah’s Messenger how dare I think of my Ghira being offended by you?’

The Messenger of Allaah said: ‘If there were to be a prophet after me it would have been Umar al-Khattab.’ Narrated by Uqbah bin Aamir, & collected by Ahmad, Tirmidhee & Hakim, & made Hasan by al-Albaanee in Saheehah (327).

[27]Narrated by Ibn Wadaah in ‘al-Bida’ p.31 & al-Laalikaa’ee 100, (1/84).

[28] He was the great Companion of the Messenger of Allaah, Abdullaah bin Mas’ood bin Ghafil bin Habeeb, died in 32 a.h. in Madina & and Zubair led the funeral prayer and was buried in Baqi’.

He was the sixth person to embrace Islaam even before Umar bin Khattab.  The Messenger of Allaah testified to his place in Paradise.

‘Alee – may Allaah be pleased with him – mentions that the Messenger of Allaah ordered Ibn Masood to climb up a tree to bring something down from it, and his companions looked at the shins of Abdullaah bin Masood while he was climbing the tree, and they began to laugh at the thinness of his shins!  So the Messenger of Allaah said : ‘What causes you to laugh?! The leg of Abdullaah is heavier in the scales on the Day of Judgement than mount Uhud.’  Recorded by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad and authenticated by Shaykh Ahmad Shakir.(920).  One of the great recitors of the Qur’aan, it was said that he was one of the closest in guidance to the Messenger of Allaah.

[29]Narrated by Ibn Batta’ in ‘al-Ebaanah’ 175 (1/327-328), & al-Laalikaa’ee 104 (1/86).

[30]Abdullaah bin Umar al-Khattab al-Qurashy, he died at the age of 83, in 63a.h. He was a great Companion and the son of the second Khalifah of Islaam, he embraced Islaam at a very young age.  He was killed by the order of Hajjaj during Hajj.

Jaabir bin AbdAllaah said: ‘There wasn’t anyone of us except that we were affected by the world and its wealth, except for Umar and his son Abdullaah.

Imaam  Maalik said : Ibn Umar is from amongst the leaders of the Muslims.

[31]Narrated by Ibn Batta’ in ‘al-Ebaanah’ 205 (1/339) & al-Laalikaa’ee 126 (1/92)

[32]Narrated by Abu Dawood and al-Bayhaqee, Ahmad authenticated by al-Hafidth Ibn Hajar.

[33]Reported by Bukharee & Muslim.

[34]Those who attach themselves and adhere to the way of the Salaf, the first three generations based upon the hadeeth : ‘What I am upon & my Companions.’

Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah said: There is no shame on the one who manifests the madhab of the Salaf & and makes affirmation of it and connects themselves to it, indeed it is obligatory for one to do so & this is acceptable because the madhab of the Salaf is nothing but the truth. (al-Fatawa 4/149).

Shaykh Abdul Azeez ibn Baaz was asked about the permissibility of calling yourself Salafee/Attharee he replied: ‘if he is truthful in being Salafee and Atharee then this is acceptable as the Salaf used to say such and such is Salafee/Atharee, indeed it is waajib.’ (Tape: Rights of the Muslim, in Taif.)

[35] Taken from Ilm Usool al-Bida’  p.191-120.

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