Day 5 – Hardness of the Heart

Bitesize Day no. 5

Hardness of the Heart

Compiled and Translated

By

Abbas Abu Yahya


English Audio:

 

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No. 5 Hardness of the Heart

Shaykh ul Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah -Rahimullaah- (d. 728 A.H.) said:

‘Khushoo (Reverence & Humility) of the body follows on from the Khushoo of the heart, this is if the man is not showing off and making apparent that which is not in his heart, as is narrated: ‘Seek refuge with Allaah from the hypocritical Khushoo’, which is when the body shows that it is reverent and has humility whilst the heart is empty, heedless and neglectful.

Allaah Subhanahu criticized the hesitance of the believers by His statement:

{أَلَمْ يَأْنِ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنْ تَخْشَعَ قُلُوبُهُمْ لِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَمَا نَزَلَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ}

<< Has not the time come for the hearts of those who believe (in the Oneness of Allaah) to be affected by Allaah’s Reminder (this Qur’aan), and that which has been revealed of the truth >> [Hadid: 16]

Allaah called them to have Khushoo of the heart to remember Him and to what He revealed in His Book and He prohibited them from being like those whom a long time had passed and their hearts became hard and these are the people whom when Allaah is mentioned their hearts tremble, and when the Ayaat of Allaah are recited to them it increases them in Eemaan.

Likewise in another Ayaah:

{اللَّهُ نَزَّلَ أَحْسَنَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابًا مُتَشَابِهًا مَثَانِيَ تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ جُلُودُ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ ثُمَّ تَلِينُ جُلُودُهُمْ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ إلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ}

<< Allaah has sent down the best statement, a Book (this Qur’aan), its parts resembling each other in goodness and truth, oft-repeated. The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it (when they recite it or hear it). Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance of Allaah >>

[Zumar: 23]

Those who have fear of their Lord are those whom when Allaah Ta’ala is mentioned their hearts tremble.

If it is said: then Khushoo of the heart due to the remembrance of Allaah and what He revealed of the truth is obligatory.

It is said: Yes, however the people are of two types:

‘Muqtasid’ – those who limit themselves to just the obligatory duties.

‘Sabiq’ – those who strive with fulfilling the recommended deeds.

So, there are those who strive with the recommended acts of worship.

The righteous who limit themselves to the obligatory duties are those from the general believers deserving of Paradise, and whoever is not from that group or this group then he is a person who oppresses his own self. In the authentic Hadeeth from the Prophet  sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam:

{اللَّهُمَّ إنِّي أَعُوذُ بِك مِنْ عِلْمٍ لَا يَنْفَعُ وَقَلْبٍ لَا يَخْشَعُ وَنَفْسٍ لَا تَشْبَعُ وَدُعَاءٍ لَا يُسْمَعُ}

‘O Allaah indeed I seek refuge with You from knowledge which is not beneficial, a heart which does not have humility of You, a soul which is not satisfied and a supplication which is not responded to.’[1]

Allaah dispraised ‘Hardness of hearts’ which negate Khushoo in more than one place in the Qur’aan.

Allaah Ta’ala said:

{ثُمَّ قَسَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ فَهِيَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً}

<<   your hearts were hardened and became as stones or even worse in hardness >>

Zajaaj said: ‘Qassat’ (hardened) in Arabic Language means: Coarse, dry and disobedient. So hardness of the heart is the departure of softness, mercy and Khushoo (reverence and humility) from it. Stern and disobedient means, extremely hard.

Ibn Qutaybah said: Strength of the heart is praiseworthy in contrast to hardness of the heart which is dispraised. The heart should be strong without being violent, and being gentle without being weak. There is an Athar, ‘The hearts are vessels of Allaah on His earth, the most beloved to Allaah are the firmest ones, the softest ones and the purest ones.’

This is like a hand, it is strong and soft, opposite to a heel of the foot since the skin is dry, not soft even though it has strength in it.

Allaah Subhanahu mentioned the trembling of the heart from remembering Him. Then Allaah mentioned an increase of Eemaan whilst reciting His Book with knowledge and acting upon it.  Also, it is necessary to have Tawakul (reliance) upon Allaah in that which he does not have the capability to do and to be obedient to Him in that which he has the capability, and the origin of that is ‘Prayer’ (Salah) and ‘Charity’.

So whoever fulfills these five pillars, as he is commanded then it is mandatory to fulfill the remaining obligations. In fact, ‘the prayer itself’ if a person does it as is ordered then it prevents from illicit sins and evil.’

[Majmoo al-Fatawa 7/29]


قَالَ أحمد بن عبد الحليم بن تيمية:

وَ ” خُشُوعُ الْجَسَدِ ” تَبَعٌ لِخُشُوعِ الْقَلْبِ إذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ الرَّجُلُ مُرَائِيًا يُظْهِرُ مَا لَيْسَ فِي قَلْبِهِ كَمَا رُوِيَ: {تَعَوَّذُوا بِاَللَّهِ مِنْ خُشُوعِ النِّفَاقِ} وَهُوَ أَنْ يُرَى الْجَسَدُ خَاشِعًا وَالْقَلْبُ خَالِيًا لَاهِيًا. فَهُوَ سُبْحَانَهُ اسْتَبْطَأَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِقَوْلِهِ: {أَلَمْ يَأْنِ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنْ تَخْشَعَ قُلُوبُهُمْ لِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَمَا نَزَلَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ} فَدَعَاهُمْ إلَى خُشُوعِ الْقَلْبِ لِذِكْرِهِ وَمَا نَزَلَ مِنْ كِتَابِهِ وَنَهَاهُمْ أَنْ يَكُونُوا كَاَلَّذِينَ طَالَ عَلَيْهِمْ الْأَمَدُ فَقَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَهَؤُلَاءِ هُمْ الَّذِينَ إذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُهُ زَادَتْهُمْ إيمَانًا. وَكَذَلِكَ قَالَ فِي الْآيَةِ الْأُخْرَى: {اللَّهُ نَزَّلَ أَحْسَنَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابًا مُتَشَابِهًا مَثَانِيَ تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ جُلُودُ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ ثُمَّ تَلِينُ جُلُودُهُمْ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ إلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ} . وَاَلَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ هُمْ الَّذِينَ إذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ. فَإِنْ قِيلَ: فَخُشُوعُ الْقَلْبِ لِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَمَا نَزَلَ مِنْ الْحَقِّ وَاجِبٌ. قِيلَ: نَعَمْ لَكِنَّ النَّاسَ فِيهِ عَلَى قِسْمَيْنِ: ” مُقْتَصِدٌ ” ” وَسَابِقٌ ” فَالسَّابِقُونَ يَخْتَصُّونَ بالمستحبات وَالْمُقْتَصِدُونَ الْأَبْرَارُ: هُمْ عُمُومُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْمُسْتَحِقِّينَ لِلْجَنَّةِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مِنْ هَؤُلَاءِ وَلَا هَؤُلَاءِ؛ فَهُوَ ظَالِمٌ لِنَفْسِهِ. وَفِي الْحَدِيثِ الصَّحِيحِ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ {اللَّهُمَّ إنِّي أَعُوذُ بِك مِنْ عِلْمٍ لَا يَنْفَعُ وَقَلْبٍ لَا يَخْشَعُ وَنَفْسٍ لَا تَشْبَعُ وَدُعَاءٍ لَا يُسْمَعُ} .

وَقَدْ ذَمَّ اللَّهُ ” قَسْوَةَ الْقُلُوبِ ” الْمُنَافِيَةَ لِلْخُشُوعِ فِي غَيْرِ مَوْضِعٍ فَقَالَ تَعَالَى: {ثُمَّ قَسَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ فَهِيَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً} . قَالَ الزَّجَّاجُ: قَسَتْ فِي اللُّغَةِ: غَلُظَتْ وَيَبِسَتْ وَعَسِيَتْ. فَقَسْوَةُ الْقَلْبِ ذَهَابُ اللِّينِ وَالرَّحْمَةِ وَالْخُشُوعِ مِنْهُ وَالْقَاسِي والعاسي: الشَّدِيدُ الصَّلَابَةِ. وَقَالَ ابْنُ قُتَيْبَةَ: قَسَتْ وَعَسَتْ وَعَتَتْ. أَيْ يَبِسَتْ. وَقُوَّةُ الْقَلْبِ الْمَحْمُودَةُ غَيْرُ قَسْوَتِهِ الْمَذْمُومَةِ فَإِنَّهُ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَكُونَ قَوِيًّا مِنْ غَيْرِ عُنْفٍ وَلَيِّنًا مِنْ غَيْرِ ضَعْفٍ. وَفِي الْأَثَرِ: {الْقُلُوبُ آنِيَةُ اللَّهِ فِي أَرْضِهِ فَأَحَبُّهَا إلَى اللَّهِ أَصْلَبُهَا وَأَرَقُّهَا وَأَصْفَاهَا} . وَهَذَا كَالْيَدِ فَإِنَّهَا قَوِيَّةٌ لَيِّنَةٌ بِخِلَافِ مَا يَقْسُو مِنْ الْعَقِبِ فَإِنَّهُ يَابِسٌ لَا لِينَ فِيهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ فِيهِ قُوَّةٌ.

وَهُوَ سُبْحَانَهُ ذَكَرَ وَجَلَ الْقَلْبِ مِنْ ذِكْرِهِ ثُمَّ ذَكَرَ زِيَادَةَ الْإِيمَانِ عِنْدَ تِلَاوَةِ كِتَابِهِ عِلْمًا وَعَمَلًا. ثُمَّ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ التَّوَكُّلِ عَلَى اللَّهِ فِيمَا لَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَيْهِ وَمِنْ طَاعَتِهِ فِيمَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَيْهِ وَأَصْلُ ذَلِكَ ” الصَّلَاةُ ” وَ ” الزَّكَاةُ “. فَمَنْ قَامَ بِهَذِهِ الْخَمْسِ كَمَا أُمِرَ لَزِمَ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ بِسَائِرِ الْوَاجِبَاتِ. بَلْ ” الصَّلَاةُ نَفْسُهَا ” إذَا فَعَلَهَا كَمَا أُمِرَ فَهِيَ تَنْهَى عَنْ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ.

الكتاب: مجموع الفتاوى 7/29

[1] Allaahumma Innee Aoodhu bika min Ilmin Laa Yanfaa’ wa min Qalbin laa Yakhshaa’, wa min Naffssin Laa Tasshbaa’,  wa min Duaain Laa Yussmaa’, wa,

 [Collected by Tirmidhi & authenticated by Albaani in ‘Saheeh Abi Dawood no. 1384-1385’ & ‘Saheeh al-Jama’no. 1297 with a similar wording]

 

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