Part 15 Sending Salat upon other than the Prophet Muhammad

Principles & Benefits

of

Sending Salat and Salam on the Prophet

 << Indeed Allaah and His Angels send Salat on the Prophet. O you who believe, Send Salat upon him, and send complete Salam upon him.>>

Part Fifteen

Sending Salat upon other than the Prophet Muhammad

 sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam

Translated & Compiled

By

Abbas Abu Yahya


A series on issues regarding sending the Salat and the Salam upon the Prophet.


Part 15

Sending Salat upon other than the Prophet Muhammad sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam

Contents for this Section

The Status of Prophet Muhammad -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- over the other Prophets

Sending Salat upon all the Prophets & the Prophet Muhammad’s family and offspring, & his Companions

Sending Salam on all of the Messengers

The Prophet sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam Sent Salam in the form of Dua’ on others

What is the ruling on sending Salat & Salam upon people other than the Prophets & saying RadhiAllaah anhu for people other than the Companions?

Sending Salat upon people other than the Prophets

Sending Salat upon the Angels

Sending Salat in the form of Dua’ upon the Rulers


The Status of Muhammad -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- over the other Prophets

Ibn Qayyim aj-Jawzeeyah -Rahimullaah- says:

‘The Salat [for the Prophet Muhammad] is from Allaah Ta’ala; which is of the most magnificent and highest level, and Muhammad -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- is the best of creation.  That is why the Salat, which occurs for him, is better than all of the Salat, which occurs for all of the creation.  Therefore, no one can be equated with the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- in terms of the Salat sent upon him.’

Ibn al-Qayyim -Rahimahullaah- continues:

‘That Allaah –Subhaanahu – ordered the people to send Salat upon the Prophet, after He stated that He and His Angels send Salat upon him and Allaah commanded with sending Salat and Salam upon him. Allaah Ta’ala emphasised this with the ‘Tasleem’ [at the end of the Ayaah].  This point and command is not affirmed in the Qur’aan for anyone else from the creation.’[1] 


Sending Salat upon all of the Prophets & Prophet Muhammad’s Family,

Offspring & Companions

From Abu Hurairah from the Prophet sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salamwho said:

صلّوا على أنبياء الله ورُسُله ، فإن الله بعثهم كما بعثني

‘Send Salat upon the Prophets of Allaah and His Messengers; since indeed Allaah sent them just like He sent me.’[2]

Sending Salam on all of the Messengers

Allaah Ta’ala said:

وَسَلامٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ

<< And peace be on the Messengers!>>[3]

  1. a) Hafidh Ibn Katheer said:

وسلام على المرسلين  أي : سلام الله عليهم في الدنيا والآخرة ; لسلامة ما قالوه في ربهم ، وصحته وحقيته .

‘Means, that there is Salam upon them in the Dunyaa and Hereafter due to what they said about their Lord, in terms of His correctness and Reality.’[4]

  1. b) al-Qurtubi said:

‘Allaah Ta’ala said:

<<وسلام على المرسلين >>

<< And peace be on the Messengers!>>

Means, those who conveyed from Allaah Ta’ala, Tawheed and the Message.

Anas said that the Prophet sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salamsaid:

إذا سلمتم علي فسلموا على المرسلين ، فإنما أنا رسول من المرسلين

‘When you send Salam upon me then send Salam upon the Messengers, since indeed I am a Messenger from among the Messengers. ‘[5]

It has been said that the meaning of ‘And peace be on the Messengers!’ is security for them which occurs from Allaah -Azza wa Jal- on the Day of Resurrection.’ [6]

  1. c) Abu Humaid as-Sa’idee said: ‘that the Companions said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah how can we send Salat upon you?’

The Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salamsaid:

‘Say: O Allaah send Salat upon Muhammad and his wives and his offspring, just as You sent Salat upon the family of Ibraheem.  And send blessings upon Muhammad and his wives and his offspring, just as You sent blessings upon the family of Ibraheem. Indeed You are the Praiseworthy the Majestic.’[7]

  1. d) ‘It is mentioned in ‘al-Fath’ (11/170):

‘Ibn Qayyim aj-Jawzeeyah said:

‘What is preferred is to send Salat upon the Prophets, the Angels, the wives of the Prophet sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam, his family, his offspring, the righteous people and to send Salat upon them and this is agreed upon unanimously.

It is disliked to send Salat for a single individual other than the Prophets, whereby it becomes a specific symbol for that individual, especially if sending Salat is not done rightfully for someone like that individual or someone better than him. However, there is an agreement that if sending Salat upon an individual is done occasionally without taking it as a specific symbol, then there is no problem with that. This is why it is not found to be said rightfully for other than those whom the Prophet sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salamsaid it for, and they are those who rarely gave Zakat, as is mentioned in the story of Jabir’s wife and the family of Sa’ad bin Ubaadah.’[8]

  1. e) Imam Muhideen Abu Zakariyyah Yahya bin Sharaf Nawawi -Rahimahullaah- wrote a chapter heading then said:

‘Chapter: Salat upon the Prophets and following on to their families – SallAllaahu alayhim wa Sallam’

The scholars agreed upon about sending Salat upon our Prophet Muhammad sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam. Likewise, the scholars who deem it to be permissible, recommend sending of Salat upon the rest of the Prophets and Angels individually.

As for other than the Prophets, the majority of the scholars are of the opinion that one does not send Salat upon them from the outset, so one does not say, Abu Bakr sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam.

The scholars differed regarding this prohibition: some of our companions[9] said; it is Haraam. Most of them said: It is disliked, and many of them held the opinion to leave it even though it is recommended, and it is not disliked.   However, what is correct is what the opinion of the majority which is that it is disliked because it is a symbol of the Ahl-ul-Bida’, and we have been forbidden from taking their symbols. This dislike is in that which there occurs a prohibition.

Our companions (i.e. the Shafia’eeyah) said that: ‘The reliable opinion regarding sending Salat is that the Salat which the Salaf used to say was specifically for the Prophets – Sallawat Allaahi wa Sallamuhu alayhim.

This is just like saying: ‘Azza wa Jall’ (The All-Mighty & The Magnificent) being specifically for Allaah –Subhaanahu wa Ta’ala. Therefore, we do not say: ‘Muhammad –Azza wa Jall’ even though the Prophet is mighty and noble.  Likewise we do not say: ‘Abu Bakr or ‘Ali sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam’ even though the meaning is correct.

The scholars have reached consensus regarding the permissibility of sending Salat upon other than the Prophets if it follows on from sending Salat upon the Prophets, hence one can say: ‘Allaahumma Salli ‘ala Muhammadin, wa ‘ala AaliMuhammad, wa as-haabihi, wa Azwaajihi wa Dhureeyatihi, wa Atbaihi’[10] because of the authentic Ahadeeth regarding this point and we had been ordered to say this in Tashahhud, the Salaf also extended it beyond their prayers.

As for sending ‘Salam’, Shaykh Abu Muhamamd al-Juwayaani from our companions said: ‘Salam’ has the meaning of ‘Salat’, except that it is not sent upon someone in his absence, and it is not said alone for someone other than the Prophets. That is why one does not say: ‘Ali –alayhi Sallam’, and this is whether it is a living individual or deceased.

Somebody who is present is addressed with ‘Salam’ so you say: ‘Sallaamun alayk’ (Peace be to you) or ‘Sallaamun alaykum (Peace be to you (plural)), or ‘as-Sallaamu alaykum’ (Peace be to you); and there is a consensus regarding this issue.’

Imam Nawawi continues with another chapter:

Chapter: the recommendation of saying: ‘May Allaah be pleased with him’ (RadhiAllaahu anhu) and ‘May Allaah have mercy upon him’ (Rahimahullah) about the Companions of the Prophet sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam, the Successors of the Companions (the Ta’abieen), and those who came after them including the scholars, worshippers and other righteous people.  So one can say: ‘RadhiAllaahu anhu’ (May Allaah be pleased with him), or Rahimahullah (May Allaah have mercy upon him).

As for some of the scholars mentioning that saying ‘RadhiAllaahu anhu’ (May Allaah be pleased with him) is specifically said for the Companions and that for everyone else you can only say ‘Rahimahullaah’, it is not as they say, and saying it specifically is not in conformity with this point. What is correct is what the majority of the scholars say, which is that it is something recommended, and there is more evidence for this than one could count.

Also, if the person mentioned is a Companion and also a son of a Companion, one should say ‘Ibn Umar – RadhiAllaahu anhuma- (May Allaah be pleased with both of them).’ The same applies for Ibn Abbas, Ibn Zubayr, Ibn Jafar, Usamah bin Zayed etc. When saying ‘RadhiAllaahu anhuma- (May Allaah be pleased with both of them)’ is said to include that Companion and his father together.’[11]

Chapter: If it is said: ‘If Luqman and Maryam are mentioned, does one send Sallat upon them as one does upon the Prophets, or should one say: ‘RadiAllaahu anhum’ (May Allaah be pleased with them) like for the Companions and the righteous people, or should one say: ‘Alayhi as-sallam’?

Answer:

‘The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that they are not Prophets, and those who hold an isolated opinion said: ‘They were Prophets and this opinion is not accepted, and it is not turned to. I have elucidated this point in the book: ‘Tahdheeb al-Asma wa Lughaat’.  If this is understood, then what is known from what some of the scholars have said when they say: ‘Luqman or Maryam – SallAllaahu ala al-Anbeeya wa alayha – (May Allaah send praise upon the Prophets and her)  or ‘Alayha’ (her) ‘wa Salam’ (and security), is that Luqman and Maryam are of a higher status than those for whom you say: ‘RadiAllaahu anhum’, because they are mentioned in the Noble Qur’aan.

The opinion that I hold is that there is no problem with saying ‘Alayhi as-sallam’, however the stronger opinion is to say: ‘RadhiAllaahu anhu’ or ‘anha’, since this level is for other than the Prophets, and it is not established that Luqman and Maryam are Prophets.  Imam al-Haraam mentions in ‘al-Irshaad’ that there is scholarly consensus  that Maryam is not a prophetess. However, if a person says: ‘Alayhi Sallam’ or: ‘Alayha’, it appears to me that there is no problem in saying this, and Allaah knows best, and there is power or might except from Allaah the Most High the Most Great.’[12]



The Prophet sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam Sent Salam in the form of Dua’ on others

Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah -Rahimullaah- was asked:

Is it permissible to send Salat upon those other than the Prophet sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam, by saying: ‘Allahumma Sali upon so and so’?

He answered:

‘Praise be to Allaah. The scholars are of two opinions; regarding whether it is allowed for  a person other than the Prophet [Muhammad sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam] to send Salat upon other than a Prophet individually.

One of the opinions is that it is not permissible. This is narrated from Malik, Shafi’ee and it was the opinion of my grandfather Abi Barakat.

The second opinion is that it is permissible. This is mentioned from Ahmad and it was the opinion of the majority of his companions, such as al-Qadi, Ibn Aqeel, and shaykh AbdulQadir. As evidence, the cite what is narrated from Ali that he said to Umar :

‘SallAllaahu Alayka’ (May Allaah send Salat upon you).

Those who follow the first opinion used as evidence the statement of Ibn Abbas:

‘I do not know that sending Salat is of benefit sent from anyone upon anyone except upon the Messenger of Allaah.’

Ibn Abbas said this when the Shia appeared and they began sending the Salat upon Ali and not upon anyone else. This is disliked and prohibited to do so for Ali as Ibn Abbas said. As for saying it for Ali, as long as it is not done excessively and believed in it and set as a distinction for other than the Messenger. This is a type of Dua’ (supplication) and there is nothing in the Book and the Sunnah which prevents this.  Indeed Allaah Ta’ala says:

( هُوَ الَّذِي يُصَلِّي عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَلائِكَتُهُ )

<< He it is Who sends Salat (His blessings) on you, and His Angels too (ask Allaah to bless and forgive you)>>

The Prophet sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam  said:

إنَّ الْمَلَائِكَةَ تُصَلِّي عَلَى أَحَدِكُمْ مَا دَامَ فِي مُصَلَّاهُ الَّذِي صَلَّى فِيهِ مَا لَمْ يُحْدِثْ

‘Indeed the Angels send Salat (Dua’) upon one of you as long as he is in his place of prayer, as long as he does not break his Wudu.’[13]

Also in the Hadeeth when the soul is taken:

صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْك وَعَلَى جَسَدٍ كُنْت تُعَمِّرِينَهُ

‘May Allaah send Salat upon you and upon the body which you inhabited.’[14]

There is no difference of opinion among the scholars that the Prophet sent Salat upon others, such as when he said, ‘O Allaah send Salat upon the family of Abee Awfaa.’ The Prophet also sent Salat upon others following on from himself, like when he said ‘O Allaah send Salat upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad.’

And Allaah knows best.’[15] 


What is the ruling on sending Salat & Salam upon other than the Prophets and saying ‘RadhiAllaah anhu’ on other than the Companions?

Shaykh Salih al-Fawzaan said:

‘Saying ‘RadhiAllaahu anhu’ (May Allaah be pleased with him) upon other than the Companions is permissible, as is sending Salat upon other than the Messenger but not continuously and it cannot be used as a way of singling somebody out.

It cannot be used as a way of singling somebody out, as the Shia have done for Ali and their other Imams, where they say ‘alayhi as-Salaam’ as a means of distinguishing for their Imams.

There is no problem with occasionally saying ‘RadhiAllaahu anhu’ for so and so, or Imam Ahmad – RadhiAllaahu anhu- Malik and Abu Hanifa from the Imams of Islaam by saying ‘RadhiAllaahu anhum’ (May Allaah be pleased with them), as long as it is not taken as something particular to them.’[16]

Sending Salat upon other than the Prophets

Allaah Tabaraka wa Ta’ala says:

هُوَ الَّذِي يُصَلِّي عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَلائِكَتُهُ لِيُخْرِجَكُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ وَكَانَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَحِيمًا

<< He it is Who sends Salat (His blessings) on you, and His Angels too (ask Allaah to bless and forgive you), that He may bring you out from darkness (of disbelief and polytheism) into light (of Belief and Islaamic Monotheism). And He is Ever Most Merciful to the believers.>>[17]

Allaah Tabaraka wa Ta’ala says:

خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِم بِهَا وَصَلِّ عَلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ صَلاَتَكَ سَكَنٌ لَّهُمْ وَاللّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

<< Take Sadaqah (alms) from their wealth in order to purify them and sanctify them with it, and invoke Allaah for them. Verily! Your invocations are a source of security for them, and Allaah is All-Hearer, All-Knower. >>[18]

  1. a) From Jabir bin Abdullaah: that a woman said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah send Salat upon me and upon my husband.’

The Messenger sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salamsaid:

صلى الله عليك وعلى زوجك

‘May Allaah send Salat upon you and upon your husband.’[19]

  1. b) From Abdullaah bin Abi Awfa who said: The Prophet sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam used to say when a people would bring their Sadaqa (charity) to him: ‘O Allaah send Salat upon the family of so and so.’

So my father came to him with his charity and the Prophet said:

اللهم صل على آل أبي أوفى

‘O Allaah send Salat upon the family of Abee Awfaa.’[20]

Sending Salat upon the Angels

Shaykh Salih Fawzan al-Fawzan said:

‘Sending Salat upon the Angels is legislated, so one says: ‘Alayhim as-Salat wa as-Salam’, or to say: ‘Alayhim as-Salam’.  This is because they are honoured worshippers and they are a creation of Allaah, whom Allaah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala has honoured over other, as Allaah Ta’ala says regarding their right:

بَلْ عِبَادٌ مُكْرَمُونَ

<< They are but honoured slaves. >>[21]

He also said:

(وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَافِظِينَ كِرَامًا كَاتِبِينَ)

<<  But verily, over you (are appointed Angels in charge of mankind) to watch you,  Kirâman (honourable) Kâtibîn writing down (your deeds)>>[22]

Allaah Ta’ala said:

(بِأَيْدِي سَفَرَةٍ كِرَامٍ بَرَرَةٍ)

<<  In the hands of scribes (Angels) honourable and obedient.>>[23]

As well as other Ayaat, they have a rank, excellence and an honour and it is legislated to send Salat upon them. There is nothing to prevent this; in fact, it is permissible.’[24]

Sending Salat in the form of Dua’ upon the Rulers

From Awf bin Malik – RadhiAllaahu anhu – from the Messenger of Allaah -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- who said:

خِيَارُ أَئِمَّتِكُمُ الَّذِينَ تُحِبُّونَهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَكُمْ ، وَيُصَلُّونَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَتُصَلُّونَ عَلَيْهِمْ ، وَشِرَارُ أَئِمَّتِكُمُ الَّذِينَ تُبْغِضُونَهُمْ وَيُبْغِضُونَكُمْ ، وَتَلْعَنُونَهُمْ وَيَلْعَنُونَكُمْ

‘The best of your leaders are those whom you like and they like you.  They send Salat (Dua) upon you, and you send Salat upon them. The most evil of your leaders are those whom you hate and they hate you, you curse them and they curse you.’

It was asked: ‘O Messenger of Allaah, should we not oppose them with the sword?’

So the Messenger said:

لَا ، مَا أَقَامُوا فِيكُمُ الصَّلَاةَ وَإِذَا رَأَيْتُمْ مِنْ وُلَاتِكُمْ شَيْئًا تَكْرَهُونَهُ ، فَاكْرَهُوا عَمَلَهُ وَلَا تَنْزِعُوا يَدًا مِنْ طَاعَةٍ

‘No, as long as they establish the prayer amongst you.  If you see something from your leaders that you dislike, then hate their actions, and do not disobey them at all.’[25]


[1] Taken from ‘Jela al-Afhaam’ by Ibn al-Qayyim p.406-407

[2] [Collected by AbdurrRazaq in ‘Musannaf’, Isma’eel al-Qadi and Bayhaqi in ‘Shua’b’ – Silsilah Saheehah Hadeeth no. 2963]

[3] [Saffat(37): 181]

[4] [Tafseer Qur’aan Ibn Katheer 7/46]

[5] Albaani declared it to be Hasan See Silsilah Saheehah Hadeeth no. 2963]

[6] [Jamia al-Ahkaam 15/129]

[7] [Collected by Abu Dawood. Albaani said: ‘Its Isnaad is Saheeh according to the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim’ in ‘Fadl as-Salat ala an-Nabi sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam (p.64)]

[8] From Kitab al-adhkar – Nawawi P.153 footnote (1)

[9] The Shafia’eeyah

[10] O Allaah send Salat upon Muhammad and his family, his Companions, his wives, his offspring and his followers.

[11] From Kitab al-adhkar – Nawawi P.153

[12] From Kitab al-adhkar – Nawawi P.153

[13] [Collected by Bukhari & Muslim]

[14] [Collected by Muslim]

[15] [Majmoo al-Fatawa 22/473]

[16] Fatwa no. 6658  http://alfawzan.ws/AlFawzan/sounds/00206-23.ra

[17] [Ahzab: 43]

[18] [Tawbah: 103]

[19] [Collected by Ibn Abee Shaybah. Albaani said: ‘Its Isnaad is Saheeh’ in ‘Fadl as-Salat ala Nabi sallAllaahu alayhi wa Salam‘ (p.69) (77)]

[20] Collected by Bukhari & Muslim

[21] [al-Anbiyaa: 26]

[22] [al-Infitar: 10-11]

[23]  [Abasa: 15-16]

[24] Majmoo’ al-Fatawa Shaykh Salih al-Fawzan 1/52

[25] [Collected by Muslim in al – Musnad as – Saheeh ‘ ] Saheehah 907

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