3- The Excellence of Tawheed
“As for your father, if he affirmed Tawheed and if you fasted and gave charity on his behalf, then this would benefit him.”
Silsilah Saheehah :484
The origin of this hadeeth is as follows: “al-Aas bin Wa’il took an oath in the days of ignorance – before Islaam – that he would slaughter one hundred camels. His son Hisham bin al-Aas slaughtered fifty camels on behalf of his father.
Umar asked the Prophet –sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam– about this? And he said: … (The above hadeeth).”
This hadeeth is clear evidence that the reward of giving charity and fasting reaches the father, likewise the mother after their death. If they were Muslims, the reward reaches them for giving charity and fasting, even without them bequeathing it.
Since the son is a product from the work of the parents. So this is included in the general saying of Allaah Ta’ala:
<< And that man can have nothing but of what he does (good or bad)>>
There is no need to specify this general meaning of the Ayaah with this hadeeth. Likewise the other hadeeth which has the same meaning in this subject, from what al-Majd Ibn Taymeeyah mentioned in his book ‘al-Muntaqa’ like some of the people who have generalized the texts.
Acknowledge that all the Ahaadeeth that he mentioned regarding this subject are specific to the parents of the son.
As for using these Ahadeeth as evidences that the reward reaches all dead people, like al-Majd ibn Taymeeyah mentions as a heading in his book, by saying: ‘Chapter – Reaching close of the reward gifted to the dead’ then this is not correct, because this claim is more general than the evidence provided. There is no evidence which shows a clear general proof, that the dead benefit from the general good actions which are gifted to them from the living, except for those specific matters which ash-Shawkaani mentions in his book ‘Nail Awwtaar’ (4/78-80), and also this writer in his book ‘Ahkaam al-Janaiz wa bida’iah’.
From those things is doing Dua’ for the dead since it benefits them, if Allaah – Tabaraka wa Ta’ala – accepts it.
So, remember this, and it will save you from going beyond the limits or falling short on this issue.
The summary of this is that the son can give charity, fast, perform Hajj and Umrah, and read Qur’aan on behalf of his parents, since this is from their own actions, and he cannot do this for other than his parents, except what has been specified with proof, of what we have indicated before and Allaah knows best.